The verb infinitive is just the simple stem. If it is absolutely necessary
to mark it as an infinitive, the particle tu is used: tu lekte
stranjeri lingue es plu fasil kam tu parla.
The imperative and present are identical to the infinitive.
For the past tense, two options are provided: a -d ending
(-ed if the stem ends in a consonant: esed) or a
particle did: me protekted = me did protekte.
For the future, the particle sal is used; for the conditional
Perfect tenses are formed with ha which can be combined with the
previous tense markers: vu sal ha perda = you will have lost, la vud
ha veni = she would have come.
The auxiliary bli is used for the passive of becoming: me bli
nultem konvikte per lon argumentes = I am never (I never get) convinced by
his arguments. The normal use of es + passive participle (ending
in -t) makes the true passive: ti libre es vendat = this
book is (being) sold.
It is important to make a distinction that English often confuses: "per" =
"by means of" while "da" is defined as "by (the agent; the converted subject.)"
In English, one can say:
1. I was hit by a hammer.
2. I was hit by a person.
3. I was wounded by gunfire.
In Novial, the first and third sentences would use "per" and
the second "da."
||Passive (of becoming)
||me bli protekte
|me protekted (did protekte)
||me blid protekte
|me ha protekte
||me ha bli protekte
|me had protekte
||me had bli protekte
|me sal protekte
||me sal bli protekte
|me sal ha protekte
||me sal ha bli protekte
|me vud protekte
||me vud bli protekte
|me vud ha protekte
||me vud ha bli protekte
For more details, see the web pages that have been put up giving the details
of the chapters in An International Language on the infinitive and imperative,
present and past, the future and conditional,
the perfect and
pluperfect, and the
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