Novial: Verbs


The verb infinitive is just the simple stem. If it is absolutely necessary to mark it as an infinitive, the particle tu is used: tu lekte stranjeri lingue es plu fasil kam tu parla.

The imperative and present are identical to the infinitive.

For the past tense, two options are provided: a -d ending (-ed if the stem ends in a consonant: esed) or a particle did: me protekted = me did protekte.
For the future, the particle sal is used; for the conditional vud.

Perfect tenses are formed with ha which can be combined with the previous tense markers: vu sal ha perda = you will have lost, la vud ha veni = she would have come.

The auxiliary bli is used for the passive of becoming: me bli nultem konvikte per lon argumentes = I am never (I never get) convinced by his arguments. The normal use of es + passive participle (ending in -t) makes the true passive: ti libre es vendat = this book is (being) sold.

It is important to make a distinction that English often confuses: "per" = "by means of" while "da" is defined as "by (the agent; the converted subject.)" In English, one can say:
1. I was hit by a hammer.
2. I was hit by a person.
3. I was wounded by gunfire.
In Novial, the first and third sentences would use "per" and the second "da."

Full Paradigm:

Active Passive (of becoming)
me protekte me bli protekte
me protekted (did protekte) me blid protekte
me ha protekte me ha bli protekte
me had protekte me had bli protekte
me sal protekte me sal bli protekte
me sal ha protekte me sal ha bli protekte
me vud protekte me vud bli protekte
me vud ha protekte me vud ha bli protekte

For more details, see the web pages that have been put up giving the details of the chapters in An International Language on the infinitive and imperative, the present and past, the future and conditional, the perfect and pluperfect, and the passive.


This page was originally a part of my site on Geocities, maintained until 1998. The last edit on the Geocities page was made on June 19, 1997. The pages on Geocities could not be edited between 1998 and 2009, and were preserved as they were, until download in preparation for migration to this site took place on May 22, 2009.
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Last modified by B. R. Gilson (brg1942@gmail.com) May 28, 2009.
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