This page is primarily devoted to the suffixes listed in Jespersen's
chapter entitled Suffixes in An International Language. However,
there are a number of other suffixes that Novial used:
-s applied to any noun and to most pronouns makes it plural.
(It is not applied to me because a first person plural is not truly
a plural of the first person singular pronoun, but means first person plus
additional <second or third person> individuals.)
-n applied to any noun or pronoun (-en after
consonants) makes it genitive.
-m may be used to make a noun or pronoun accusative; unlike
the corresponding -n ending in Esperanto, however, it is expected
that this will be only used when position and context do not make it clear.
-d applied to any verb makes it past, as an alternative to
the particle did. (See the separate page on
Verbs in Novial.)
-nt for the active participle, and -t for the
passive participle, are also applied to verbs; these will usually be followed
in turn by the -i adjective marker, of course.
Now for the summary of Jespersen's chapter on suffixes:
1. Substantival suffixes:
-o denotes substantives immediately derived
from or connected with a verb and meaning the simple act or state denoted by the
respekte = respect (v); respekto = respect (n).
(Note: this is in official Novial; since it conflicts with -o for
masculine substantives, in my opinion I would change it in an updated version)
-eso forms abstracts from adjectives:
vereso = truth.
-ione denotes the result or manner of an
action. (verbs in -e drop -e before adding -ione:
opine - opinione; verbs in any other vowel add -t before
the -ione: forma - formatione).
-um denotes the product of the action, as
distinct from the way it is done, added to the passive participle: fabrikatum
= manufactured article.
-ach- disparaging or contemptuous: populache
5. Numeral suffixes:
-anti denotes the tens: duanti = 20.
-esmi ordinal: duesmi = second.
-ime fractions: duime = half.
-opli used in such as duopli =
-oplim adverb from -opli: duoplim
-opim by -s: triopim = by threes,
three at a time.
6. Adverbial suffixes:
-tem time: nultem = never.
-foy time (in sense of German mal, Fr.
fois): dufoy = twice.
-lok place: dislok = here
(though hir, dar, vor = here, there, where coexist with
dislok, tilok, quilok).
-kas case: tikas = in that case.
-grad degree: altigrad = in high
-man manner: altriman = in a
different way, otherwise. (May be shortened to -m).
This page was originally a part of my site on Geocities, maintained until 1998.
The last edit on the Geocities page was made on May 24, 1997. The pages on Geocities
could not be edited between 1998 and 2009, and were preserved as they were, until
download in preparation for migration to this site took place on May 22, 2009.
Please inform me of dead links and any other problems.
Last modified by B. R. Gilson
(firstname.lastname@example.org) May 22, 2009.