Novial: suffixes


This page is primarily devoted to the suffixes listed in Jespersen's chapter entitled Suffixes in An International Language. However, there are a number of other suffixes that Novial used:

-s applied to any noun and to most pronouns makes it plural. (It is not applied to me because a first person plural is not truly a plural of the first person singular pronoun, but means first person plus additional <second or third person> individuals.)

-n applied to any noun or pronoun (-en after consonants) makes it genitive.

-m may be used to make a noun or pronoun accusative; unlike the corresponding -n ending in Esperanto, however, it is expected that this will be only used when position and context do not make it clear.

-d applied to any verb makes it past, as an alternative to the particle did. (See the separate page on Verbs in Novial.)

-nt for the active participle, and -t for the passive participle, are also applied to verbs; these will usually be followed in turn by the -i adjective marker, of course.
Now for the summary of Jespersen's chapter on suffixes:

1. Substantival suffixes:

-o
denotes substantives immediately derived from or connected with a verb and meaning the simple act or state denoted by the verb: respekte = respect (v); respekto = respect (n). (Note: this is in official Novial; since it conflicts with -o for masculine substantives, in my opinion I would change it in an updated version)
-eso
forms abstracts from adjectives: vereso = truth.
-ione
denotes the result or manner of an action. (verbs in -e drop -e before adding -ione: opine - opinione; verbs in any other vowel add -t before the -ione: forma - formatione).
-um
denotes the product of the action, as distinct from the way it is done, added to the passive participle: fabrikatum = manufactured article.
-ure
product: fotografure = photo (cf. fotografatum = object photographed).
-ere
person/animal occupied in some sort of action: bakere = baker.
-iste
similar to -ere, but used for adherents of a doctrine or party, correlating with -isme; also for certain professions: dentiste.
One would distinguish kantiste = professional singer, kantere = amateur, but in many cases the distinction would not be meaningful and -ere and -iste would be equivalent.
-isme
-ism: ateisme = atheism.
-arie
recipient of an action: sendarie = addressee.
-ilo
tool or instrument: skriptilo = any kind of writing instrument.
-ia
domain, province, country: Fransia = France.
-torie
place where something is done: laboratorie = laboratory
-aje
something made of something: lanaje = woolen goods.
-ede
quantity that fills something: manuede = handful.
-aro
collection, group, set of things or persons: homaro = mankind.
-ide
descendant: regide = someone of royal blood.
-yune
young: bovyune = calf.

2. Verbal suffixes:


-ira
makes verbs from nouns denoting living beings, since one cannot just replace -e by -a which would be taken for a sign of the feminine: regira = rule as king.
-isa
-ize (to make into, transform into, render).
-ifika
(like -isa).
(Note that these can really be treated as -i, the sign of an adjective, plus -sa or -fika, and Jespersen gives this analysis as well.)
-ad-
repeated or continuous act: frapada = beat several times.
-eska
beginning of an action or state: dormieska = fall asleep.

3. Adjectival suffixes:


-al(i)
relating to: bestie = beast, bestial = bestial.
(All of the following, when given a consonantal ending, have an optional -i in a similar manner:)
-an
inhabiting, belonging to a class or party: Romani = Roman, urban = urban.
-atri
similar in appearance or character: blankatri = whitish.
-ari
agreeing with or fit for: populari = popular.
-os
possessing or having (especially in great quantity): kurajosi = courageous.
-isi
to a very high degree (forming adverbs in -isim): grandisi = enormous.
-iv
doing naturally or capable of doing: preventiv = preventive.
-as
having the tendency or inclination to: kredasi = credulous.
-bli
passive possibility: lektebli = legible.
-endi
that must be: lektendi = required to be read.
-indi
that deserves to be: amindi = lovable.

4. General suffixes:


-et-
diminutive: riverete = brook , beleti = pretty.
-on-
indicates greatness: pluvono = heavy rain.
-ach-
disparaging or contemptuous: populache = rabble.

5. Numeral suffixes:


-anti
denotes the tens: duanti = 20.
-esmi
ordinal: duesmi = second.
-ime
fractions: duime = half.
-opli
used in such as duopli = double, etc.
-oplim
adverb from -opli: duoplim = doubly.
-opim
by -s: triopim = by threes, three at a time.

6. Adverbial suffixes:


-tem
time: nultem = never.
-foy
time (in sense of German mal, Fr. fois): dufoy = twice.
-lok
place: dislok = here (though hir, dar, vor = here, there, where coexist with dislok, tilok, quilok).
-kas
case: tikas = in that case.
-grad
degree: altigrad = in high degree.
-man
manner: altriman = in a different way, otherwise. (May be shortened to -m).


This page was originally a part of my site on Geocities, maintained until 1998. The last edit on the Geocities page was made on May 24, 1997. The pages on Geocities could not be edited between 1998 and 2009, and were preserved as they were, until download in preparation for migration to this site took place on May 22, 2009.
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Last modified by B. R. Gilson (brg1942@gmail.com) May 22, 2009.
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