Verbal Suffixes

As remarked above, it would not do to derive verbs immediately from words denoting living beings; but we take the suffix -IRA from D -ieren, etc. (Dan -ere, R in some cases -irovat'): rego king, regira rule as king, regiro reign; profetira prophesy, interpretira, koketira, rivalira, rebelira vikariira.

To form verbs signifying to make into, transform into, render, we have two international suffixes, both to be used in Novial, namely -ISA (E -ise or -ize, F -iser, I -izzare, D -isieren, etc.) and -IFIKA (E -ify with -ification, F -ifier, I -ificare, D -ifizieren, etc.). In both we may take i as our adjective-ending, and thus consider -sa and -fika the real suffix. Examples: realisa, idealisa, materialisa, modernisa, sterilisa, kristalisa, harmonisa, fanatisa - simplifika, klarifika, verifika, justifika, sanktifika, rektifika, fortifika, falsifika, personifika, identifika.

It is obviously an advantage to be able to utilize all these and other verbs already known all over the world; N therefore adopts both suffixes, but Novialists need not commit to memory which words take one and which the other ending: they are free to choose between them in each particular case, if they do not happen to remember one ready-made form. This simplisa and klarisa are admitted by the side of simplifika and klarifika, and on the other hand, modernifika by the side of modernisa, etc. Note that we have a similar state of things when in E we say Anglicize, but Frenchify.

A distinction may be made bewteen elektrisa charge with electricity (also in a figurative sense: thrill with exciting emotion) and elektrifika electrify a railway, etc.

One thing should be marked here, namely that instead of considering simplifika as derived by means of a suffix, we may treat it as a compound of two autonomous words, the adj simpli and a verb fika. This amounts, in other words, to extracting from all these verbs a new verb fika, which is used with the meaning `to render, make into, make': me simplifika li prosedo = me fika li prosedo simpli; lo fika sen marita felisi he makes (renders) his wife happy, and with an infinitive: lo fika li kavale kurse he makes the horse run (= lo fika ke li kavale kurse). This fika is different from the simple verb fa = do, make, and is restricted to the uses here specified. (Also with a passive infinitive: fika li libre bli binda have the book bound, i.e. make that it is bound = fika li libre bindat, fika li bindere binda li libre.)

The two endings may, of course, be used after comparatives: plubelisa, minbelisa, plubelifika, etc.

Fika with verbs: dormifika lull asleep, put to sleep; it is generally better to dissolve the idea into two verbs.

The suffix -isa is also used in the meaning to provide or supply with, cover with: alkoholisa alcoholize, orisa gild, stonisa cover with stones, macadamize, butrisa (cover with) butter, armisa arm, and in a somewhat looser way organisa, harmonisa, orientisa. Note that E carbonize like N karbonisa has the two meanings `convert into carbon' and `cover with carbon.'

The latter is the only way in which -izar is used in Ido, but the suffix is really much less widely used in national languages in this than in the first-mentioned meaning, corresponding to Ido -igar, Esp -igi. In our system we may consider this use of the suffix -isa as secondary and as a kind of abbreviation of -os-isa: makulisa = makulosisa, fika makulosi.

-AD- taken from such substantives as F promenade, cannonade, fusillade, is used as in Esp and Ido with verbs and verbal sbs for the repeated or continuous act: frapada beat several times (frapado continued beating, frapo a single blow); kantada; parlada go on talking.

-ESKA (from L) with verbs denotes the beginning of an action or state: dormieska fall asleep, videska begin to see, kurseska start running, ameska fall in love, rideska burst out laughing; with adjective roots it means begin to be (become): paleska turn pale, oldeska begin to grow old. Verbal sb in -o: dormiesko, etc.; oldesko beginning senility.

Return to Contents Page

The original conversion of this page to digital form was made by James Chandler, who has given me permission to copy all Novial-related pages from his site. Except for correcting typographical errors and the necessary changes involved in migrating from his site (mainly URLs in links), this page is a direct copy from his site.
Please inform me of dead links and any other problems.
Last modified by B. R. Gilson ( May 28, 2009.
Sign up for your own site